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刘宋文学研究
中文摘要

刘宋文学在六朝文学中占有重要的地位,上承东晋文学,下启齐梁文学。本文在尽可能掌握刘宋文学相关文献资料的基础上,结合此时期的政治制度、文化思想、士人心态等,阐释刘宋作品的风格特色、艺术特质,探究此时期文学的嬗变过程及其所产生的意义,考辩刘宋作家的存疑问题,力求获得对刘宋文学的系统认知。 刘宋诗歌在题材与体裁上都颇具特点且意义重大。谢灵运的山水诗形声色兼具、情景理交融,消解了东晋诗中枯燥的玄理,奠定了山水诗的写作模式,引导了山水诗的创作方向。颜延之的公宴诗篇制宏大、笔法精工,开公宴诗雕琢之风,树公宴诗典丽之貌。鲍照的乐府诗在叙事视角上多用第一人称,在诗体上采用七言与杂言体,完成了乐府诗由代言体向个人体的转变,推动了七言与杂言体的转型。谢庄的杂言诗节奏分明、情感浓郁、对仗工整,推动诗歌向抒情化的方向发展,促使诗歌由“雅”向“俗”转变,加速了“元嘉体”向“永明体”的过渡进程。 刘宋辞赋呈现出“复”与“变”的双重特质。谢灵运的《山居赋》,更多地表现出“复”的一面:沿用大赋体制,采用铺排手法,摹景精细。但亦有“变”的特质,如在语言表达上,去饰而取素,注重山居生活情致的表现等。鲍照的《芜城赋》,更多地表现出“变”的特质:句式工整,语词峭丽,意境苍凉,感情凄怆。此赋突破了刘宋赋体丽靡的审美取向,强化了赋作的讽喻功能。谢庄的《月赋》,亦表现出了“变”的特质:意境清雅,抒情浓厚,偶对精工,声律和谐。此赋标志着咏物赋向抒情赋的转变,完成了古赋向骈赋的转变,赋史意义重大。 刘宋之文经历了散体、骈散杂糅、骈体的转变过程。何承天之文,句法灵活,行文流畅,风格质朴,颇有汉魏之文的流风余韵,较能代表刘宋前期散文之特质。傅亮与谢灵运之文,骈散杂糅,文风或典雅或质朴,是刘宋文风由“古”向“骈”演变过程中的特殊产物。颜延之之文,注重雕润藻饰,典雅华赡,精工绮丽,实现了由“古”向“骈”的转变。鲍照、谢庄之文,是较为成熟的骈文,鲍文华而不弱、工而不密,是一种颇具骨力的骈文;谢文对仗精工,典故繁密,音韵和谐,“为骈体之完备与鼎盛多有贡献”。 刘宋,文学之一转关也。此时期文学完成了对东晋玄理的消解与清洗,实现了由理向情的复归;又以博学为尚、以技巧相争,实现了由才向学的转变;还多采用杂言、七言等体式,实现了由雅向俗的变革。 刘宋作家生平中有诸多悬案。经考,何承天任宁蛮校尉赵恢之司马、贬任衡阳内史的时间,分别是在义熙四年、元嘉十一年。傅亮之死,是因其与王华、王昙首等新兴势力派发生了利益冲突,以致被诬害。宗炳入庐山次数为两次,时间分别为晋元兴二年、晋义熙十一年。袁淑任彭城王义康军司祭酒任卫军、宣城太守、太子中庶子的时间,分别是在元嘉八年、十九年、二十四年。王微之死,并非如史传所言为弟僧谦误诊,咎恨、哀痛而亡,而是因经年服用寒食散,中毒而亡。谢庄辞却吏部尚书郎,是为了避免与孝武帝发生直接对抗,保全自己。汤惠休还俗时间为大明二年,原因是“自非戒行清苦”。 关键词 刘宋文学 艺术特点 文学意义 嬗变过程 疑案考论

英文摘要

The literature of Liu Song Dynasty playes an important role in the literature of the Six Dynasties, that linking the literature of Eastern Jin Dynasty and starting the literature of Qi and Liang Dynasty. Based on the relevant literature material, and the politics, culture, psychology and so on, I will try to analyze writers' mystery, interpret the style and characteristics of works, explore the process and its significance, and strive to get the overall cognition on Liu Song Literature. The poetry of Liu Song Dynasty have a significant influence with its special characteristics of theme and genre. The landscape poetry written by Xie Lingyun has a graceful shape that a fusion of sound, color, light. He played down the philosophy, but added up the emotion, that established the new writting mode and guide the creative direction of landscape poetry. The banquet poetry written by Yan Yanzhi has a grand scheme and delicate strokes, that brought in an ornate and elegant style for Liu Song poetry. The Yuefu poetry written by Bao Zhao has the first-person narrative view, the heptasyllabic and mixed verse. He made the transformation from the third-person narration to the first-person narration, and from five-character to seven-character and mixted character. The mixed poetry written by Xie Zhuang has strong emotion, regular rhythm, balanced verse. He made the transformation from elegance to vulgarity, and from the Yuanjia style to Yongming style. The Fu of Liu Song Dynasty had double characters that inheritance and innovation. Shanju Fu written by Xie Lingyun shows inheritance: grand scheme, rich details, delicate descriptions. It also shows innovation: concise words, exquisite life, simple interests and so on. Wucheng Fu written by Bao Zhao shows innovation: regular sentences, fancy words, desolate condition, miserable emotion. Compared to luxurious style, it focused the allegorical meaning, that made a breakthrough to the aesthetic orientation. Mood Fu written by Xie Zhuang also shows innovation: elegant condition, concordant rhythms, regular symmetry and so on. It was marked the transformation from delineative Fu to lyrical Fu, and from “ancient Fu” to “parallel Fu”. There was a process from free style to mixture of free and parallel style to parallel style on the prose of Liu Song Dynasty. He Chengtian's prose had kept the classic lasting appeal with the flexible syntax, fluent writing and unsophisticated styles. It can represent the characteristics of prose of the early stage of Liu Song Dynasty. Xie Lingyun and Fu Liang's prose were the special products of evolution process from ancient prose to parallel prose with the mixture of free and parallel stlye. Yan Yanzhi's prose had made the transformation from ancient to parallel with its sumptuous language, vivid description, delicate diction and so on. Xie Zhuang and Bao Zhao's prose were the matured parallel. Bao's prose were ornate and powerful. Xie's prose were regular and harmonious. Both of them had made enormous contributions to the prose of Liu Song Dynaty. Liu Song Dynasty was a period of change in Chinese ancient literature.It played down and cleaned up the philosophy of poetry of Eastern Jin Dynasty, that made the poetry transform from philosophical to lyrical. It focused on the quotations and skills, that made made the poetry transform from creative to imitative. It used mixed and heptasyllabic verse, that made the poetry transform from elegant to vulgar. There are a lot of mysteries about the writers of Liu Song Dynasty. By the textual research, He Chengtian held the post of Ning Man military officer Zhao Dan's assistants in 408 A.D., and he held the post of Hengyang military in 434 A.D.. Fu Liang made the conflict with Wang Hua and Wang Tanshou and others, and was framed to die. Zong Bing went to the Mount Lu two times, the first was in 402 A.D., the second was in 415 A.D..Yuan Shu held the post of Liu Yikang's assistants in 431 A.D., was appointed the officer in Xuancheng in 442 A.D., and prince's assistants in 447 A.D.. Wang Wei was not died of feeling guilty for his brother’s death, but because of taking Cold-Food Powder. Xie Zhuang quit the job in Ministry of Personnel for avoiding making the conflict with the emperor Xiao wu, and to preserve himself. Tang Huixiu was forced to resume secular life in 458 A.D., the reason was that he didn't obey the rules of Buddism. Key words: the literature of Liu Song Dynasty; artistic characteristics; the influence of literature; evolution process; the texual research on mystery

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